"Antibiotics are routinely fed to healthy animals at low levels. This practice promotes the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria which are a major public health concern," said Dr. Urvashi Rangan, Director of Safety and Sustainability at Consumer Reports. "Infections caused by resistant bacteria are more difficult to treat and can lead to increased suffering and costs."
A separate test for ractopamine, a drug used to promote growth and leanness in pigs, found very low levels. Although approved for use in the United States, the drug is banned in China and Taiwan and in all of the European Union. Several countries had safety concerns about ractopamine, which is similar to drugs used to treat asthma.
"No drugs, including ractopamine and antibiotics, should be fed routinely to healthy animals for growth promotion and to prevent disease. These practices are harmful to public health, which is why they are banned in Europe," said Dr. Michael Hansen senior scientist for Consumer Reports.
The complete report and analysis can be found in the January 2013 issue of Consumer Reports and online at www.ConsumerReports.org.
Consumer Reports Findings
Consumer Reports tested 148 samples of meat from pork chops and 50 from ground pork. The pork samples came from many major and store brands, but the sample sizes for each were small and distinctions among them could not be drawn. In a separate test to determine the presence of ractopamine, Consumer Reports analyzed 240 additional pork products. Here are some key findings:
How Pigs Become Contaminated
All animals (humans included) have bacteria on their skin and in their gastrointestinal tract. Although these bacteria may not always harm the animal itself, many have the potential to cause illness in humans. During slaughter and processing, the normally sterile muscle (meat) can become contaminated with bacteria from the animal's skin or gut as well as from workers, equipment or the environment. A typical hog barn can contain more than 2,000 pigs; confining animals in these types of conditions and feeding them low levels of antibiotics can promote the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can then be transferred to humans.
What Consumers Can Do
Consumers can minimize their risks through both how they handle and prepare their pork and by how they shop for it.
Tips for Safe Preparation and Handling:
Tips for Choosing Meaningful Labels while Shopping for Pork:
A Call to Action
Consumers Union recently launched its Meat Without Drugs campaign to persuade grocery stores to stop selling meat and poultry raised on a steady diet of antibiotics. Consumers Union is focusing its initial campaign efforts on Trader Joe's, the national specialty grocer.
Consumers Union has also urged the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prohibit the use of antibiotics in food animals for growth promotion and disease prevention. Consumers Union believes the FDA should limit antibiotic use to the treatment of veterinarian-diagnosed sick animals only. Unfortunately, proposals to limit antibiotics in animal feed have been blocked for decades.
"It is time for the government to take action now. In the meantime, companies can be proactive," said Jean Halloran, Director of Food Policy Initiatives at Consumers Union. "We are calling on retailers and grocery stores, starting with Trader Joe's, to commit to stopping these practices and stocking only meat that was raised without feeding antibiotics to healthy animals."
Consumers Union also believes the government should take the following steps:
Consumer Reports is the world's largest independent product-testing organization. Using its more than 50 labs, auto test center, and survey research center, the nonprofit rates thousands of products and services annually. Founded in 1936, Consumer Reports has over 8 million subscribers to its magazine, website and other publications. Its advocacy division, Consumers Union, works for health reform, food and product safety, financial reform, and other consumer issues in Washington, D.C., the states, and in the marketplace.
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