(HealthNewsDigest.com) - WEST ORANGE, N.J., Nov. 30, 2017 -- For many older adults, driving is the key to maintaining independence, self-sufficiency and, for some, even their identity. But what happens when age, illness or injury makes it difficult or unsafe to drive? When do you know it's time to give up the keys – and how do you deal with that loss of freedom?
"Don't wait for an accident to happen before having a conversation with a family member or friend," advises Richard Nead, CDRS, manager of driver rehabilitation, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation (www.kessler-rehab.com). "Be aware of the warning signs – such as slowed reaction time, memory issues, vision difficulties or physical challenges, as well an increase in traffic violations or dents and scratches to the car. In addition, seek medical advice to help determine if there are any underlying conditions or age-related changes that can be managed effectively or that signal it's time to stop driving."
Although it can be a difficult decision, it is a necessary one. The risk of being injured or killed in a motor vehicle accident – or causing harm to others - increases with age. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reports, for example, that in 2015 drivers aged 65 and older accounted for 18 percent of all motor vehicle fatalities.
According to neuropsychologist Kelly A. Kearns, Psy.D., Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, having to give up the keys impacts more than just an individual's sense of independence. It can lead to isolation and depression, and place a strain on family members who not only must have this discussion with their loved one, but now may find themselves in the position of providing rides to the market, doctors' appointments and other activities. "This can be a very difficult and stressful time for everyone involved."
A range of issues may contribute to a person's inability to drive, including skills that may decline with age or conditions that develop over time, including:
Vision - acuity, peripheral vision, attention, as well as cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma
Physical skills - strength, reflexes, neuromuscular control
Medical conditions - arthritis, pain, dementia and heart disease, as well as medications
"Watching for the 'stop' signs is the first step," says Nead. "It's also important to be ready to discuss this potentially difficult issue and to have a plan in place to address how to best meet transportation needs going forward." Kessler Institute, one of the nation's leading rehabilitation hospitals, offers the following tips:
Ride along with your family member and observe his or her ability to control the vehicle, stay within the lane, drive at posted speeds, maintain a safe distance from other cars, obey traffic signals, make appropriate decisions when turning or at intersections, and park the car.
Look for any confusion, poor judgement or indications that he or she not focused, including getting lost, braking/accelerating for no apparent reason or forgetting where the car is parked.
Consult with a physician who can help to identify any medical issues and support the decision to continue driving or not.
If driving remains an option, consider having the individual enroll in a course to brush up on road rules and defensive driving techniques, or consult with a driving rehabilitation specialist, like those at Kessler Institute, who perform complete evaluations both on and off the road to help maintain safe driving practices.
If it's no longer safe to drive, be prepared for a frank but often emotional discussion. "Anger and sadness are often associated with the loss of driving, so let the individual express his or her thoughts, acknowledge their feelings, and respond with compassion," suggests Kearns.
Explore transportation options. From community transport and senior resources to Uber, Lyft and other car services, there are many alternatives available.
Create an "advanced directive for driving," which designates a trusted individual to assist if the older driver is no longer able to drive safely.
"Although it may take some time," notes Kearns, "helping a family member understand the need to be safe and supporting them with alternative transportation options can help them adjust to life without driving."