Substances called biomarkers they reflect processes that are going on inside the body. "Biomarkers could be used both for predicting disease risk and for selecting those who would potentially benefit most from therapy," says Dr. Samia Mora, a cardiologist at Brigham and Women's Hospital and assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.
A good biomarker must be accurate, easy to measure, and safe. Think cholesterol. A useful biomarker also needs to provide new information beyond what other tests already offer. Over the last decade or so, researchers have been testing several other biomarkers to help fine-tune heart disease prediction. They include:
- C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in the body.
- Apolipoproteins, types of protein that travel in the blood with cholesterol.
- Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, an enzyme released by immune system cells.
- B-type natriuretic peptide, a hormone produced in response to excess stress on the heart.
Many of the processes and risks these biomarkers identify are the same in men and women. But because women naturally have different levels of certain biomarkers, the tests used to measure these biomarkers may need to be interpreted differently or have separate thresholds for men and women.
A single biomarker won't be the great crystal ball able to predict a future heart attack. But a group of biomarkers taken together could give valuable insight into a person's cardiovascular future. "I think there will probably be a panel of biomarkers that can identify risk based on different underlying processes," Dr. Mora says.
Read the full-length article: "Predicting heart disease risk in women"
Also in the August 2014 Harvard Women's Health Watch:
- Strength training tips to prevent falls and immobility
- Summer skin safety
- What meditation can do for your mind, mood, and health
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